At the altitude of low-Earth-orbiting satellites, most details of lithospheric magnetic anomalies observed near surface are attenuated, and only slowly decaying long-wavelength magnetic anomalies can be detected. Long-wavelength magnetic anomalies are generated by large-scale magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust and uppermost mantle at depths shallower than the Curie depth. Interpretation of such lithospheric magnetic anomalies has been used in geological mapping, crustal composition and structure studies, plate tectonic reconstruction, and geodynamics. To introduce the origin of long-wavelength magnetic anomalies at a global scale, we first reviewed satellite magnetic anomaly maps in early periods and calculated anomaly maps using four main lithospheric magnetic field models, including the CHAOS-7, CM6, MF7, and CSES models. Then, based on the result of the CHAOS-7 model at 500 km altitude, 29 long-wavelength magnetic anomalies with amplitudes greater than 4 nT were identified and their geological origins were reviewed. Among these, there were twenty magnetic anomalies over continents and nine over the ocean. The long-wavelength magnetic anomalies over continental areas were mostly located in Precambrian basements related to the Archean nuclei, Proterozoic terrane, and iron-rich formations, with a few located in the orogenic background. The long-wavelength magnetic anomalies in the ocean region were all located in oceanic plateau, generally related to the breakup of Gondwana during the Cretaceous Period, and have the characteristics of thickened crust. Hence, the long-wavelength magnetic anomalies reveal a significant magnetization difference in the deep crust during crustal growth, a key issue that requires further study. Compared to satellite magnetic surveys in some other nations, detecting lithospheric magnetic anomalies by satellite started relatively late in China. The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) was launched in February 2018. It was China’s first satellite designed to monitor earthquakes with multiple geophysical payloads, including magnetometers capable of measuring weak signals from the lithosphere. The Macau Science Satellite-1 (MSS-1) was launched in 2023 and is specially used for monitoring the geomagnetic field in low latitudes. Furthermore, a subsequent CSES-02 satellite is planned to be launched in 2024. With the vigorous development of satellite magnetic surveys in China, it is expected that progressively more Chinese researchers will pay attention to long-wavelength magnetic anomalies and promote the study of their origin.