• ISSN 2097-1893
  • CN 10-1855/P
于向前,和冬华,肖池阶,宗秋刚,施伟红,刘斯,陈鸿飞,王永福,邹鸿. 2024. 子午工程二期宽频地磁波监测仪研制. 地球与行星物理论评(中英文),55(1):6-14. doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2023-007
引用本文: 于向前,和冬华,肖池阶,宗秋刚,施伟红,刘斯,陈鸿飞,王永福,邹鸿. 2024. 子午工程二期宽频地磁波监测仪研制. 地球与行星物理论评(中英文),55(1):6-14. doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2023-007
Yu X Q, He D H, Xiao C J, Zong Q G, Shi W H, Liu S, Chen H F, Wang Y F, Zou H. 2024. Development of the wideband magnetic field wave monitor for the Phase II of Chinese Meridian Project. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 55(1): 6-14 (in Chinese). doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2023-007
Citation: Yu X Q, He D H, Xiao C J, Zong Q G, Shi W H, Liu S, Chen H F, Wang Y F, Zou H. 2024. Development of the wideband magnetic field wave monitor for the Phase II of Chinese Meridian Project. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 55(1): 6-14 (in Chinese). doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2023-007

子午工程二期宽频地磁波监测仪研制

Development of the wideband magnetic field wave monitor for the Phase II of Chinese Meridian Project

  • 摘要: 地球的磁层中存在各种波现象,其频率从mHz延伸到数千Hz. 这些波的研究一直是空间物理学研究的核心问题. 针对目前世界上地磁台站的波监测设备均为各自测量相对变化、缺乏统一标定、无法进行从高纬到低纬联合观测、无法进行多台设备观测数据的统一对比研究的现状,本文综合使用磁阻传感器(探测ULF频段:1 mHz~2 Hz)、巨磁感抗传感器(探测ELF频段:0.2 Hz~2 kHz)和线圈传感器(探测VLF频段:0.2 kHz~10 kHz)研制新一代的宽频地磁波监测仪,将这些监测仪放置在120°E子午链附近的黑龙江漠河站(高纬)、北京十三陵站(中纬)、海南乐东站(低纬)等典型区域的地磁台站上,并对各个台站的设备进行统一的时间、振幅和频率标定,结合FY-3E、SMILE等近地空间卫星数据,全面提升对地球磁层的各种波现象的探测能力. 研制的宽频地磁波监测仪的性能测试实验表明,其具有对一定频率(1 mHz~10 kHz)的波的探测能力;其幅度探测范围为:±65000 nT(ULF频段)、±1000 nT(ELF频段)、±100 pT(VLF频段);在量程范围内又具有较低的非线性误差:ULF频段≤0.0446%、ELF频段≤0.51%、VLF频段≤1.18%;噪声水平也较低:RMS(方均根)噪声≤0.5554 nT (ULF频段)、NPS(功率谱)噪声≤0.028 nT/√Hz (ELF频段)、NPS(功率谱)噪声≤0.24 pT/√Hz(VLF频段). 所有这些特点使得所提出的宽频地磁波监测仪能够满足子午工程二期的波探测需求.

     

    Abstract: There are various magnetic field waves with frequencies ranging from mHz to thousands of Hz in the Earth's magnetosphere. These waves can be categorized into three classes depending on their period: ULF (mHz to ~ Hz), ELF (~ Hz to hundreds of Hz), and VLF (hundreds of Hz to thousands of Hz). The regular and continuous ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the magneto-sphere, ranging from 1 mHz to a few Hz, are important to geomagnetic micropulsations. Recently, whistler mode waves generated by lightning and extremely low-frequency (ELF) bursts, which can be attributed to earthquakes, were detected near the surface; their frequencies range from several Hz to a few hundred Hz. The research on the characteristics of ionospheric plasma disturbance caused by the known ground-based very low frequency (VLF) transmitters, whose frequencies range from a few hundred to a few thousand Hz, is of great significance for analyzing changes in the ionospheric environment. These magnetic field waves are crucial for studying various space physical phenomena. As the wave monitoring equipment of global geomagnetic stations measures relative changes and a lack of unified calibration, they cannot conduct joint observations from high to low latitudes and unified comparative studies of the observational data from multiple sensors. The magnetoresistance sensor (ULF: 0.1 mHz–2 Hz), giant magneto-inductance sensor (ELF: 0.2 Hz–2 kHz), and coil sensor (VLF: 0.2–10 kHz) is used to develop a new generation of broadband geomagnetic wave monitors, which are placed on the geomagnetic stations in typical areas such as Mohe (high latitude), Beijing's Ming Tombs (middle latitude), and Sanya Ledong (low latitude), near the 120° meridian chain. Combined with the data of near-Earth space satellites such as FY-3E and SMILE, the observation ability of various wave phenomena in the Earth's magnetosphere will be comprehensively improved. The performance test experiment shows that the developed wave monitor can detect the fluctuating magnetic field at a particular frequency (1 mHz–10 kHz); magnetic field detection ranges of: ± 65000 nT (ULF frequency band), ± 1000 nT (ELF frequency band), and ± 100 pT (VLF band); with low nonlinear errors: ULF frequency band ≤ 0.0446 %, ELF frequency band ≤0.51 %, and VLF frequency band ≤ 1.18 %; and low noise levels: RMS ≤0.5554 nT (ULF frequency band), NPS ≤0.028 nT /√Hz (ELF frequency band), and NPS ≤0.24 pT/√Hz (VLF band). These characteristics enable the proposed broadband geomagnetic wave monitor to meet the Phase II of Chinese Meridian Project magnetic field detection requirements.

     

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