• ISSN 2097-1893
  • CN 10-1855/P

地幔顶部Pn波成像方法的发展与应用

贺羽慧 关玉蕊 孔华 吕彦

引用本文: 贺羽慧,关玉蕊,孔华,吕彦. 2022. 地幔顶部Pn波成像方法的发展与应用. 地球与行星物理论评(中英文),53(0):1-19
He Y H, Guan Y R, Kong H, Lü Y. 2022. Development and application of uppermost mantle Pn tomography. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 53(0): 1-19 (in Chinese)

地幔顶部Pn波成像方法的发展与应用

doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2022-052
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(41874066);中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所重点部署项目(IGGCAS-201904)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    贺羽慧(1997-),女,博士研究生,主要从事地震层析成像研究. E-mail:heyuhui19@mails.ucas.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    吕彦(1984-),副研究员,主要从事地球内部结构研究. E-mail:lvyan@mail.iggcas.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315.2

Development and application of uppermost mantle Pn tomography

Funds: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41874066) and the Key Research Program of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Science (Grant No. IGGCAS-201904)
  • 摘要: 地震Pn波的射线路径集中在地幔顶部有限深度范围内,在射线横向覆盖密度方面具有独特优势,因而Pn震相是研究地幔顶部这一重要层面速度和各向异性结构的优势震相. Pn波速度的横向变化可以反映上地幔温度及成分差异,Pn波各向异性能够反映地幔物质的运动及形变特征,高精度的地幔顶部Pn波速度和各向异性结构可以提供关于岩石圈结构、板块运动和深部热物质运移过程等的关键信息. Pn波成像方法经过发展和改进,已经成为研究地幔顶部结构的成熟技术,并被应用于全球范围获取地壳厚度、上地幔速度和各向异性等结构信息,精细刻画了全球上地幔结构的横向不均匀性,进一步认识了地球内部结构和板块俯冲、大陆碰撞变形、火山活动等动力学过程. 随着全球地震台站覆盖的日益密集和观测数据的不断增加,大量高质量的Pn数据为地幔顶部精细结构的研究提供了有利条件. 本文围绕Pn波成像方法的发展及在全球范围的应用进行综述.

     

  • 图  1  Pn波射线路径(修改自Hearn et al., 1991

    Figure  1.  Pn ray path (modified from Hearn et al., 1991)

    图  2  (a)美国西部台站延迟时间 (修改自Buehler and Shearer, 2012);(b)菲律宾岛弧台站延迟时间所反映的地壳厚度(修改自Li et al., 2017

    Figure  2.  (a) Station delays of western United States (modified from Buehler and Shearer, 2012); (b) Crustal thickness reflected by station delay time of Philippine island arc (modified from Li et al., 2017)

    图  3  较大纵向梯度情况下不同震中距Pn波射线路径

    Figure  3.  Pn ray paths of different epicentral distances with a vertical gradient

    图  4  美国地区经过地幔速度梯度校正前(左)后(右)的速度和各向异性结果(Buehler and Shearer, 2017

    Figure  4.  Velocity and anisotropy results before (left) and after (right) mantle velocity gradient correction of the United States (Buehler and Shearer, 2017)

    图  5  中国东部地区Pn波三维反演速度结果(修改自Sun and Kennett, 2016b

    Figure  5.  Pn velocity results of three-dimensional inversion in eastern China (modified from Sun and Kennett, 2016b)

    图  6  阿拉斯加地区Pn成像研究坐标旋转示意图(He and Lü, 2021

    Figure  6.  Schematic of the coordinate rotation of the Pn imaging study in Alaska (He and Lü, 2021)

    图  7  全球范围Pn层析成像研究区域图(相关文献见附录)

    Figure  7.  Study areas of Pn tomography in the world (see the appendix for the corresponding references)

    图  8  中国地区Pn波速度结构(修改自Pei et al, 2007). JB:准噶尔盆地;TS:天山;TB:塔里木盆地;THB:吐哈盆地;QB:柴达木盆地;EHS:喜马拉雅东构造;YG:云贵高原;SB:四川盆地;NCB:华北盆地

    Figure  8.  Pn velocity structure of China (modified from Pei et al., 2007)

    图  9  喜马拉雅-青藏高原碰撞带示意图(修改自Liang and Song, 2006). MBT:喜马拉雅主逆冲断层;YZS:雅鲁藏布缝合带;BNS:班公—怒江缝合带;JRS:金沙江缝合带;KLF:昆仑断裂带;ATF:阿尔金断裂带; LTF:龙门山断裂带;XF:鲜水河断裂带

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone (modified from Liang and Song, 2006)

    图  10  青藏高原东部地区Pn波速度和各向异性结果及模型示意图(修改自Lei et al, 2014). BNS:班公—怒江缝合带;ALS:阿拉善地块;SCB:四川盆地;NCDB:川滇块体北部;SCDB:川滇块体南部;TCV:腾冲火山

    Figure  10.  Pn velocity and anisotropy results and a model diagram of eastern Tibet (modified from Lei et al., 2014)

    图  11  Pn波速度揭示的岩石圈分段俯冲(修改自Li and Song, 2018). IML-F:印度地幔岩石圈北部边界; all dep:所有深度地震数量大于190的地震群;≥ 40 km:深度≥ 40 km的地震数量大于50的地震群;Events≥ 70 km:震源深度≥70 km的中深地震;bulletins:地震报告;EHB+HQ:来自EHB目录和高质量测定的重定位中深地震事件

    Figure  11.  Segmented lithospheric subduction revealed by Pn velocity (modified from Li and Song, 2018)

    图  12  西北太平洋地区Pn波速度和各向异性结果及模型示意图(修改自Lü et al., 2019). PSP:菲律宾海板块;PAC:太平洋板块

    Figure  12.  Pn velocity and anisotropy results and a model diagram of the northwestern Pacific area (modified from Lü et al., 2019)

    图  13  中南美洲地区Pn波速度和各向异性结果及模型示意图(修改自Lü et al, 2022). AZ:阿祖尔火山;CR:哥斯达黎加; NPDB:北巴拿马变形带;NAB:北安第斯块体;MB:马拉开波块体

    Figure  13.  Pn velocity and anisotropy results and a model diagram of Central America and northwestern South America (modified from Lü et al., 2022)

    编号研究区域年份作者期刊研究区域射线条数震中距范围
    1 东亚地区 2001 汪素云等 中国科学 70/130/15/50 39473 1.5~12
    2004 Hearn等 JGR 70/130/15/50 62983 1.8~15
    2004 Liang等 JGR 70/130/20/50 57740 2~12
    2004 裴顺平等 地震学报 70/130/15/50 91138 2~12
    2005 Phillips等 GRL 70/130/20/50 408 1.6~20
    2007 Pei等 JGR 70/130/15/50 91139 2~12
    2013 Wang等 JGR 60/145/15/60 296334 1.8~12
    2016 Zhou和Lei PEPI 70/130/15/50 52061 2~15
    2 青藏高原地区 1993 Zhao和Xie GJI 70/105/25/40 353 3~15
    1997 McNamara等 JGR 70/110/25/45 1510 3~16
    2002 裴顺平等 地球物理学报 70/100/33/50 21704 2.5~9
    2003 黄金莉等 中国科学 85/115/15/40 23298 2~12
    2003 许忠淮等 地震学报 93/113/33/42 28275 2~9
    2006 Liang和Song GRL 70/110/20/50 44018 3~12
    2007 李志伟等 地球物理学报 73/80/39/44 1623 1.6~6.3
    2009 崔仲雄和裴顺平 地球物理学报 90/110/15/35 349475 2~12
    2011 李飞等 地球物理学报 96/107/21/34 53673 1.6~12
    2011 Lü等 EPS 65/105/20/40 105385 2~12
    2012 黎源和雷建设 地球物理学报 91/109/20/40 53102 1.8~15
    2012 Li等 EPSL 101/106/29/33 328 2.7~
    2013 王海洋等 地球物理学报 80/110/25/42 51629 1.8~15
    2014 Lei等 JGR 91/109/20/40 13218 2.5~11
    2014 Lü等 Tectonophysics 95/115/20/35 134862 3~16
    2018 Li和Song PNAS 76/100/25/38 49888 2~10
    2019 Du等 JAES 98/109/26/37 49973 2~15
    2019 Hearn等 GJI 75/110/20/42 406570 4~16
    2020 Bao和Yang JGR 92/101/31/35 59个地震
    2020 Nie等 Tectonophysics 84/92/30/33 2400 3~15
    2022 Hapaer等 JAES 68/82/37/45 20940 2~12
    3 南海及周边地区 2007 胥颐等 地球物理学报 105/130/5/30 79034 1.4~13.5
    2017 Li等 JGR 108/130/5/27 35000 2~12
    2021 Mi等 JAES 95/130/-15/30 23042 2~15
    4 中国东部地区 2003 Chen等 EPS 120/122/22/26 1768 1.8~3.6
    2003 汪素云等 中国科学 105/130/28/42 20301 1.2~9
    2008 胥颐等 地球物理学报 114/132/30/45 10271 1.6~12.6
    2011 李志伟等 科学通报 108/124/32/44 9815 1.6~6.3
    2016 顾勤平等 地球物理学报 114/124/18/39 6381 1.2~7
    2016 吕子强等 地球物理学报 112/126/30/46 10056 1.2~10
    2016b Sun和Kennett GRL 100/140/18/60 11755 1.8~12
    2016c Sun和Kennett Tectonophysics 100/140/18/60 11755 1.8~12
    2018 王倩等 地球物理学报 105/140/15/55 240814 2~12
    2019 Du和Lei JAES 108/138/36/52 9197 2~15
    2019 Tectonophysics 100/125/30/42 46968 2~12
    2019 殷伟伟等 地球物理学报 112/124/28/40 27233 1.8~12
    2020 顾勤平等 地球物理学报 113/124/28/40 9156 1.2~7
    2020 Lü等 G-Cubed 100/125/30/45 105508 2~12
    2020 殷伟伟等 地球物理学报 106/118/32/43 25304 1.8~10
    2021 苗庆杰等 地球物理学报 112/124/32/42 26598 1.8~12
    5 西北太平洋地区 2019 Lü等 JGR 125/150/30/50 191649 2~12
    2022 Du等 JGR 108/155/30/55 88303 2~15
    6 欧洲-地中海地区 1997 Parolai等 JGR 4/13/42/49 - 1.6~7.2
    1998 Mele等 JGR 0/25/34/50 38868 2~9
    1999 Hearn JGR 0/35/30/50 140833 1.8~10.8
    2004 Song等 GJI 5/16/46/53 2149 1.4~6.3
    2005 Serrano等 PEPI -10/5/33/41 11612 1.8~10.8
    2013 Díaz等 GJI -20/30/20/55 579753 2~12.6
    2019 Sun等 EPSL 4/20/38/48 395918 2~12
    7 土耳其及邻区 1994 Hearn和Ni GJI 20/60/25/50 70755 1.8~12
    2003 Al-Lazki等 GRL 30/50/34/42 51000 1.8~16
    2004 Al-Lazki等 GJI 20/60/28/50 166000 1.8~16
    2009 Gans等 GJI 28/45/36/44 1300 1.8~10
    2011 Mutlu和Karabulut GJI 17/47/33/45 39900 1.6~13.5
    8 亚丁湾 2014 Corbeau等 Geosphere 36/62/8/28 65985 1.8~16
    9 阿拉伯—
    欧亚板块边界
    2012 Lü等 BSSA 40/65/20/45 74375 2~12
    2014 Al-Lazki等 Geological Society 45/67/20/40 470252 1.8~16
    10 北极地区 2001 Levshin等 PEPI 纬度>60 1132500 3~15
    11 阿尔卑斯—
    喜马拉雅碰撞带
    2002 Ritzwoller等 Tectonophysics 30/90/20/55 1257052 3~15
    2011 Pei等 JGR 15/90/20/53 654999 2~12
    2017 Lü等 JGR 5/110/20/50 725368 2~12
    12 欧亚大陆 2007 Phillips等 GRL 30/135/0/60 186822 2.5~18
    13 非洲东部 2000 Brazier等 GRL 29/40/-10/4 - 1.8~10
    14 马达加斯加 2020 Andriampenomanana等 GJI 42/51/-26/-11 4963 2~13
    15 印度盾及周边地区 2021 Illa等 Tectonophysics 55/105/-5.5/45 19500 2~15
    16 蒙古地区 2013 汪素云等 地球物理学报 80/130/40/55 78364 1.8~10
    2019 He等 JGR 75/125/35/60 12094 2~12
    17 澳大利亚 2016a Sun和Kennett JGR 110/160/-45/-10 5288 1.8~15
    18 新西兰 2009 Seward等 JGR 172/180/-42/-34 11200
    19 阿拉斯加地区 2002 McNamara和Pasyanos GRL -170/-130/50/70 54036 1.8~9
    2021 He和Lü JGR -165/-125/54/66 58052 2~12
    20 北美地区 1984 Hearn JGR -121/-114/32/37 2800 1.3~6.3
    1986 Hearn和Clayton BSSA -121/-114/32/36 6031 1.6~5
    1991 Hearn等 JGR -125/-105/30/50 50000 1.8~10.8
    1993 Zhao JGR -125/-110/25/45 1226 2~11
    1994 Hearn等 GRL -118/-114/35/38 1320 1.8~10
    1996 Hearn JGR -130/-105/30/50 30675 1.7~11
    2009 Zhang等 BSSA -110/-75/30/50 19166 2~14
    2010 Buehler和Shearer JGR -130/-105/25/50 123008 1.6~13
    2012 Buehler和Shearer JGR -125/-90/15/55 161000 2~13
    2014 Buehler和Shearer JGR -125/-100/25/50 183000 1.8~12.6
    2017 Buehler和Shearer JGR -130/-70/20/50 206000 2~20
    2019 Basu和Powell JGR -110/-70/25/45 13779 2~14
    21 中南美洲地区 2022 Lü等 JGR -90/-70/-5/15 67857 2~12
    22 东加勒比地区 2021 Lü等 JGR -75/-60/5/20 40649 2~12
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-27
  • 录用日期:  2022-07-20
  • 修回日期:  2022-07-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-08-02

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