• ISSN 2097-1893
  • CN 10-1855/P

宽角反射&折射剖面揭示的祁连造山带莫霍面深度

吴国炜 熊小松 高锐 陈宣华 李英康 王冠 任海东

引用本文: 吴国炜,熊小松,高锐,陈宣华,李英康,王冠,任海东. 2022. 宽角反射&折射剖面揭示的祁连造山带莫霍面深度. 地球与行星物理论评(中英文),53(0):1-11
Wu G W, Xiong X S, Gao R, Chen X H, Li Y K, Wang G, Ren H D. 2022. Moho depth of the Qilian orogen revealed by wide-angle reflection and refraction profiles. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 53(0): 1-11 (in Chinese)

宽角反射&折射剖面揭示的祁连造山带莫霍面深度

doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2021-067
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(41774114,41590860,41574093);中国地质调查局资助项目(DD20190011,DD20179342,DD20160083);国家重点研发计划课题资助项目(2016YFC0600302);青海省科技厅基础研究计划资助项目(2018-ZJ-944Q)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴国炜(1995-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事大陆岩石圈的结构与演化的研究. E-mail:wuguowei19@mails.ucas.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    熊小松(1983-),男,副研究员,主要从事深部构造与大陆岩石圈演化研究的研究. E-mail:benxung@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P315

Moho depth of the Qilian orogen revealed by wide-angle reflection and refraction profiles

Funds: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41774114, 41590863, 41574093), the China Geological Survey Project (Grant Nos. DD20190011, DD20179342, DD20160083), the National key R&D project (Grant No. 2016YFC0600302) and the Project of Qinghai Science and Technology Department (Grant No. 2018-ZJ-944Q)
  • 摘要: 祁连造山带位于青藏高原东北缘,距南侧的喜马拉雅碰撞带前缘1500 km,以一个宽阔的(东西长约1000 km,南北宽200~400 km)、NW走向的造山带的形式被夹持于北侧的河西走廊盆地与南侧的柴达木盆地之间,西侧被NEE走向的阿尔金左行走滑断裂带所截切,北缘以青藏高原北缘断裂带,祁连山北缘断裂带和祁连山东缘断裂带与河西走廊盆地相邻,南东方向与中生代早期的西秦岭造山带相接,东缘与鄂尔多斯地块相邻. 在印度板块和亚洲大陆板块碰撞以及新生代以来青藏高原造山过程中起着重要作用. 对其地壳深部结构的探测是研究青藏高原隆升和向北扩展,理解印度与欧亚大陆碰撞的大陆内部构造作用的关键手段. 自1980年代以来,前人在该区实施了多条宽角反射&折射剖面,以揭示祁连造山带及周缘的地壳深部结构. 本文通过对这些宽角反射&折射剖面的收集汇总、梳理分析,以探讨祁连造山带不同区段下方莫霍面起伏及深度差异,研究结果显示:祁连造山带莫霍面埋深整体自西向东变浅,最深的莫霍面位于北祁连造山带内的哈拉湖附近;结合其他地质与地球物理资料,本文推测莫霍面深度的起伏及变化状态揭示了祁连造山带由西向东不同的地壳缩短方式,其中西段最深的莫霍面可能由双向俯冲的“底垫作用”所引起;中段的壳内低速体和低阻体反映了该区在上下地壳解耦变形作用下产生的大型滑脱带调节印度板块向欧亚板块持续碰撞导致的远程效应;而莫霍面深度最浅的东段累积应力的调节主要依靠左行走滑的海原断裂和壳内发育的逆冲断裂调节.

     

  • 图  1  祁连山及周缘断层构造体系略图(修改自Yin et al., 2008a, 2008b; Duvall et al., 2013; Zuza et al., 2016

    Figure  1.  Sketch map of the fault tectonic system of Qilian Mountains and surrounding areas (modified from Yin et al., 2008a, 2008b; Duvall et al., 2013; Zuza et al., 2016)

    图  2  祁连造山带及周缘宽角反射&折射剖面探测程度图

    Figure  2.  Wide-angle reflection and refraction probing extent in Qilian orogenic belt and adjacent regions

    图  3  沿测线莫霍面深度分布图(图中数字代表附近区域的莫霍面深度,单位:km). 宽角反射&折射剖面: $\boxed{\;1\;} $:门源—平凉—渭南;$\boxed{\;2\;} $:成县—西吉;$\boxed{\;3\;} $:阿尔金—龙门山;$\boxed{\;4\;} $:灵台—阿木去乎;$\boxed{\;5\;} $:可可托海—阿克塞;$\boxed{\;6\;} $:格尔木—额济纳旗;$\boxed{\;7\;} $:西吉—中卫;$\boxed{\;8\;} $:玛沁—兰州—靖边;$\boxed{\;9\;} $:大柴旦—若羌—拜城;$\boxed{10} $:马尔康—碌曲—古浪;$\boxed{11} $:陇西—黄陵;$\boxed{12} $:景泰—合作;$\boxed{13} $:玛多—共和—雅布赖; $\boxed{14} $:柴北缘—河西走廊:$\boxed{15} $:银额盆地宽角反射&折射

    Figure  3.  Depth distribution map of the Moho surface along the survey line (the number in the figure represents the depth of the Moho surface in the nearby area, unit: kilometer). Deep seismic sounding profiles: $\boxed{\;1\;} $: Menyuan-Pingliang-Weinan; $\boxed{\;2\;} $: Chengxian-Xiji; $\boxed{\;3\;} $: Altyn-Longmenshan; $\boxed{\;4\;} $: Lingtai-Amuquhu; $\boxed{\;5\;} $: Akesai-Keketuohai; $\boxed{\;6\;} $: Geermu-Ejinaqi; $\boxed{\;7\;} $:Xiji-Zhongwei; $\boxed{\;8\;} $: Maqin-Lanzhou-Jingbian; $\boxed{\;9\;} $: Dachaidan-Ruoqiang-Baicheng; $\boxed{10} $: Maerkang-Luqu-Gulang; $\boxed{11} $: Longxi-Haungling; $\boxed{12} $: Jingtai-Hezuo; $\boxed{13} $: Maduo-Gonghe-Yabulai; $\boxed{14} $: Chaibeiyuan-Hexizoulang; $\boxed{15} $: YineDSS

    图  4  已有宽角反射&折射剖面莫霍面深度插值得到的青藏高原东北缘及其周缘莫霍面深度分布图

    Figure  4.  Moho depth distribution map of northeastern Tibet Plateau and its periphery obtained by Moho depth interpolation of existing wide-angle reflection and refraction profiles

    图  5  祁连造山带地壳变形模式图. (a)逆冲叠置;(b)分散缩短;(c)背向生长

    Figure  5.  Crustal deformation pattern of Qilian orogenic belt: (a) thrust superposition , (b) dispersion shortening , and (c) back-growth

    表  1  祁连造山带及周缘宽角反射&折射剖面探测程度表(总长度:10997 km)

    Table  1.   Wide-angle reflection and refraction probing extent in Qilian orogenic belt and adjacent regions (Total length: 10997 km)

    编号剖面名称长度/km实施年份实施单位
    1 门源—平凉—渭南 970 1982 中国地震局
    2 成县—西吉 242 1986 国家地震局兰州地质研究所
    3 阿尔金—龙门山 1600 1989 国土资源部
    4 灵台—阿木去乎 460 1990 中国地震局
    5 可可托海—阿克塞 1170 1991 国土资源部
    6 格尔木—额济纳旗 1050 1992 中国地质科学院
    7 西吉—中卫 248 1999 中国地震局地球物理勘探中心
    8 玛沁—兰州—靖边 980 1997 中国地震局地球物理勘探中心
    9 大柴旦—若羌—拜城 1100 2000 中国地震局
    10 马尔康—碌曲—古浪 637 2004 中国地震局地球物理勘探中心
    11 陇西—黄陵 410 2012 中国地质科学院地质研究所
    12 景泰—合作 430 2013 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所
    13 玛多—共和—雅布赖 850 2014 中国地震局地球物理勘探中心
    14 柴北缘—河西走廊 450 2016—2017 中国地质科学院
    15 银额盆地宽角反射&折射 400 2018—2019 中国地质科学院
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-29
  • 录用日期:  2022-07-24
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