• ISSN 2097-1893
  • CN 10-1855/P

月震研究进展与展望

张翔 张金海

引用本文: 张翔,张金海. 2021. 月震研究进展与展望. 地球与行星物理论评,52(4):391-401
Zhang X, Zhang J H. 2021. Research progress and prospect of moonquakes. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 52(4): 391-401

月震研究进展与展望

doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2021-032
基金项目: 中科院战略先导资助项目(XDA17010404);国家自然科学基金资助项目(41941002)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张翔(1991-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事行星物理研究. E-mail:zhangxiang191@mails.ucas.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    张金海(1978-),男,研究员,主要从事行星物理研究. E-mail:zjh@mail.iggcas.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P184

Research progress and prospect of moonquakes

Funds: Supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA17010404) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41941002)
  • 摘要: 月球内部的圈层结构对于理解月球的形成和演化至关重要,因为它与岩浆洋冷凝、密度分异和物质对流等过程密切关联. 阿波罗任务在月球正面中低纬度建立了第一个月震观测台网,为我们提供了研究月球内部结构以及月震的宝贵实测资料. 然而,阿波罗时代的月震仪在灵敏度等方面存在较大限制,导致原始信噪比低,严重影响了月球内部圈层结构的探测能力,迄今尚未观测到切实可靠的深部反射震相,导致在月壳厚度、月核大小及深部物性状态等方面均存在很大的学术争论. 本文回顾了阿波罗月震探测的仪器、数据及应用情况,特别关注月球内部圈层结构、月震波散射和衰减等方面的研究进展;最后,展望了未来月震研究的发展方向,并介绍了我国首台月震仪研制的基本构想.

     

  • 图  1  阿波罗月面着陆点的位置分布图(修改自Nunn et al., 2020). 被动月震实验(PSE)是在阿波罗11、12、14、15和16号站进行的(11号站只运行了大约3个星期). 第一种主动月震实验(ASE)设在14和16号站. 第二种主动实验,也称为月球表面剖面实验(LSPE),设在17号站. 17号站还包括月球表面重力仪(LSG),能够提供额外的被动月震信息

    Figure  1.  Locations of the Apollo stations on the Moon (modified from Nunn et al., 2020). Passive Seismic Experiments (PSE) were based at Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16 (station 11 was only operational for 3 weeks). Active Seismic Experiments (ASE) were based at Stations 14 and 16. A second active experiment, known as the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) was based at station 17. Station 17 also included the Lunar Surface Gravimeter (LSG), which is a source of additional passive seismic information

    图  2  阿波罗月震实验的运行周期和数据可用性(修改自Nunn et al., 2020). 蓝色实线表示仪器主要运行时间(偶尔会出现停机和数据丢失). 虚线表示仪器大多处于待机状态,偶尔开启接收模式

    Figure  2.  Overview of the operating periods of the Apollo seismic experiments and data availability (modified from Nunn et al., 2020). Solid blue lines indicate mainly operational instruments (with just occasional outages and data loss). Dashed lines indicate instruments which were mostly on standby but were occasionally turned on in their listening mode

    图  3  深部月震、陨石撞击、浅层月震和人工撞击事件的例子(修改自Nunn et al., 2020). 这些事件是在阿波罗12号台站的3个分量(MHZ、MH1和MH2)上记录到的

    Figure  3.  Examples of a deep moonquake, a meteoroid impact, a shallow moonquake and an artificial impact event (modified from Nunn et al., 2020). The events were recorded at seismic station S12 on 3 components (MHZ, MH1 and MH2)

    图  4  2019年以前发表的月球速度和密度模型的比较(修改自Garcia et al., 2019).(a)从月球表面到月球中心的P波速度、S波速度和密度的径向剖面;(b)月壳和月幔上部的局部放大图. 实线表示每个研究的平均值或最可能的模型,虚线表示可用的一个标准偏差误差栏. 黑色虚线表示等值线,包括Khan和Mosegaard(2002)中概率密度最高的模型分布的一半,仅限于月球的前500 km

    Figure  4.  Comparison of previously published lunar seismic velocity models (modified from Garcia et al., 2019). Radial profiles of P-wave velocity on the left, S-wave velocity in the center, and density on the right are presented from the surface to center of the Moon (a) and a zoom on crust and uppermost mantle (b). Solid lines indicate either mean or most likely model for each study, dashed lines indicate one standard deviation error bar where available. Black dashed lines indicate the contour lines including half of the model distribution with highest probability density in Khan and Mosegaard (2002), limited to the first 500 km of the Moon

    图  5  Garcia等(2019)发表的月球内部结构模型与以前模型的比较.(a~c)从月球表面到月球中心的P波速度、S波速度和密度的径向剖面;(d~f)地壳和最上地幔的局部放大

    Figure  5.  Comparison of previously published lunar internal structure models with model suites M1, M2, and M3. Radial profiles of P-wave velocity (a), and S-wave velocity (b), and density (c) as a function of depth. Plots in the bottom panel (d~f) show a zoom on upper mantle structure (modified from Garcia et al., 2019)

    表  1  阿波罗月震仪器位置坐标(修改自Nunn et al., 2020

    Table  1.   Locations of the Apollo seismic stations (modified from Nunn et al., 2020)

    台站坐标
    纬度经度
       A11PSE0.6732223.47315
       A12PSE−3.00990 336.57520
       A14PSE−3.64408 342.52233
       A14ALSEP−3.64419 342.52232
       A15PSE26.13411 3.62980
       A15ALSEP26.13406 3.62991
       A16PSE−8.97590 15.49860
       A16ALSEP−8.97590 15.49860
       A17ALSEP20.19230 30.76550
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  长周期月震仪平坦模式运行时间(修改自Nunn et al., 2020). 长周期月震仪以平坦模式运行的主要时间,在剩下的时间里,它们以峰值模式运行

    Table  2.   Flat Mode Operation (modified from Nunn et al., 2020). The main times when the long-period seismometers were operating in flat mode. For the remainder of the time they operated in peaked mode

    台站平坦模式运行时间
    S121974-10-16,14:02:36.073~1975-04-09,15:31:03.702
    1975-06-28,13:48:23.124~1977-03-27,15:41:06.247
    S141976-09-18,08:24:35.026~1976-11-17,15:34:34.524
    S151971-10-24,20:58:47.248~1971-11-08,00:34:39.747
    1975-06-28,14:36:33.034~1977-03-27,15:24:05.361
    S161972-05-13,14:08:03.157~1972-05-14,14:47:08.185
    1975-06-29,02:46:45.610~1977-03-26,14:52:05.483
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  Nakamura等(1981)探测到并编目的月震类型及数量,并于2008年更新,2018年略有更正. 这些事件是在长周期仪器上探测到的

    Table  3.   Number of moonquakes of each different type detected and cataloged by Nakamura et al. (1981) and updated in 2008 with minor corrections in 2018. These events were detected on the long-period instruments

    月震类型  数量
        人工撞击9
        陨石撞击1743
        浅层月震28
        深部月震(分配到群组)7083
        深部月震(未分配到群组)317
        其它类型(包括热月震)555
        未分类3323
        合计13058
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-02
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-21
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-01

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