• ISSN 2097-1893
  • CN 10-1855/P

美国ShakeAlert地震预警系统2.0版本的发展

刘赫奕 宋晋东 李山有

引用本文: 刘赫奕,宋晋东,李山有. 2021. 美国ShakeAlert地震预警系统2.0版本的发展. 地球与行星物理论评,52(6):634-646
Liu H Y, Song J D, Li S Y. 2021. Development of ShakeAlert 2.0 earthquake early warning system in the United States. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 52(6): 634-646

美国ShakeAlert地震预警系统2.0版本的发展

doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2021-026
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1504003)及其省级资助;国家自然科学基金资助项目(51408564)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘赫奕(1993-),女,博士研究生,主要从事地震预警技术研究. E-mail:616016012@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    李山有(1965-),博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事地震预警技术研究. E-mail:shanyou@iem.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315

Development of ShakeAlert 2.0 earthquake early warning system in the United States

Funds: Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC1504003) and its provincial funding, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51408564)
  • 摘要: 美国西海岸地区ShakeAlert地震预警系统能够在破坏性地震波到达前发布地震警报,从而减轻地震造成的灾害. 经过近十余年的发展,ShakeAlert系统研发已基本完成,2019年10月17日,ShakeAlert 2.0系统开始在加利福尼亚全州进行测试,正式向全州公众发布地震预警信息. 本文回顾了ShakeAlert 2.0地震预警系统的发展历程,详细介绍了台站观测系统、数据传输系统、数据处理与警报中心、测试与认证平台、信息发布系统和终端用户显示等情况,旨在分析ShakeAlert 2.0系统在防震减灾方面的巨大效用以及对中国地震预警系统发展的借鉴.

     

  • 图  1  美国ShakeAlert系统发展历程

    Figure  1.  History of ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system in US

    图  2  ShakeAlert地震预警系统的系统架构

    Figure  2.  System configuration of ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system in US

    图  3  截至2019年5月,美国西部ShakeAlert 2.0系统的ANSS台站(绿色三角形)分布图. 红色虚线框内表示的是警报区域,但并不是所有的台站都位于警报区域内(Kohler et al., 2020

    Figure  3.  ANSS network stations (green triangles) in the western United States as of May 2019. The alerting region is shown by the dashed red outline. Not all stations are required to be within the alerting region (Kohler et al., 2020)

    图  4  ShakeAlert系统数据处理与警报中心的架构. 它包含三个处理层,分别为数据层、生产层和警报层. 数据处理从数据层到生产层,最后到警报层结束

    Figure  4.  Schematic flowchart showing the data processing and alarm center of ShakeAlert. It contains 3 processing layers, namely the data layer, the production layer and the alarm layer. Data processing flows from the data layer, through the production layer to the alert layer

    图  5  ShakeAlert警报产品中的等值线图和网格图. (a)等值线图;(b)网格图

    Figure  5.  Two maps of the western United States showing examples of the shaking intensity contour and grid map ground-motion products distributed by ShakeAlert. (a) Contour map; (b) Grid map

    图  6  警报后消息决策流程图

    Figure  6.  Post-alert messaging decision flow chart

    图  7  1989年10月16日,LomaPrieta地区M6.9历史地震中的UserDisplay截图. 红点是震中位置,黄色和红色圆圈分别表示P波和S波,蓝色的小房子代表用户位置,数字23代表S波到达用户位置的时间为23 s,罗马数字V代表用户位置的预期烈度为MMI=V度,数字6.9表示震级估计值为6.9级

    Figure  7.  Screenshot of UserDisplay showing the M6.9 earthquake in LomaPrieta on October 16, 1989. The red dot is the epicenter of the earthquake. The yellow circle and the red circle show the P wave and the S wave, respectively. The blue house represents the user's location. The number 23 indicates that there are 23 seconds remaining until the S wave reaches the user's location. (V) and (6.9) indicate that the estimated intensity at the user's location is MMI=V, and the estimated magnitude is 6.9

    表  1  ShakeAlert系统的测试性能

    Table  1.   ShakeAlert system performance

    震级地震事件
    总数
    成功预警
    事件
    漏报
    事件
    迟报
    事件
    误定位或
    误报事件
     6级以上118102
     4.5~6级2614 831
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-13
  • 录用日期:  2021-06-04
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-13
  • 刊出日期:  2021-11-01

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