• ISSN 2097-1893
  • CN 10-1855/P


刘洋 吴兴 刘正豪 邹永廖

引用本文: 刘洋,吴兴,刘正豪,邹永廖. 2021. 火星的地质演化和宜居环境研究进展. 地球与行星物理论评,52(4):416-436
Liu Y, Wu X, Liu Z H, Zou Y L. 2021. Geological evolution and habitable environment of Mars: Progress and prospects. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 52(4): 416-436


doi: 10.19975/j.dqyxx.2021-025
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(42072337);民用航天预先研究资助项目(D020101, D020102);中国科学院战略先导项目(XDB 41000000);国家重大研发计划资助项目(2019YFE0123300)

    刘洋,男,研究员,主要从事行星科学研究. E-mail:yangliu@nssc.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P691

Geological evolution and habitable environment of Mars: Progress and prospects

Funds: National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 42072337), the Pre-research Project on Civil Aerospace Technologies (Grant Nos. D020101, D020102), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB 41000000), and the State Key Research Development Program of China (Grant no. 2019YFE0123300)
  • 摘要: 作为太阳系中与地球最为相似的行星,火星因其表面丰富的古代水活动历史和可能保存的古生命迹象,从而成为太阳系深空探测的主要目标之一. 火星和地球的早期演化过程相似,但目前尚未在火星上发现生命迹象. 火星的地质特征和宜居环境演化历史等问题存在大量假说亟待检验和甄别. 本文总结了火星各个地质年代的基本特征,介绍了火星上不同的地质特征和对气候条件的响应,梳理了火星上的水活动历史所记录的火星宜居环境的变迁,也总结了火星表面水成矿物的分布、含量和形成环境,以及水成地貌特征和环境演化历史,并讨论了早期火星气候存在的争议问题. 最后,对火星未来的探测方向给出了展望.


  • 图  1  火星MOLA地形图与主要地貌单元,图中白色区域为火星火山主要分布区域(修改自Werner, 2009

    Figure  1.  Mars MOLA topographic map and main geomorphic units. The white circles are the main volcanic areas on Mars (modified from Werner, 2009)

    图  2  (a)位于29°S、218.8°E的单层溅射毯撞击坑;(b)位于10.4°N、287.8°E的双层溅射毯撞击坑;(c)位于23.2°N、207.8°E的多层溅射毯撞击坑. 图片来自CTX(Context Camera, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)

    Figure  2.  (a) the SLE crater at 29°S, 218.8°E; (b) the DLE crater at 10.4°N, 287.8°E; and (c) the MLE crater at 23.2°N, 207.8°E. These images are from CTX

    图  3  火星表面分布的水流通道(CTX,241.6E,20.6N),在最宽的通道中间分布有流线型岛屿

    Figure  3.  Fluvial channels on the surface of Mars (CTX, 241.6E, 20.6N), the streamlined island distributed in the middle area of widest channel

    图  4  坦佩高地东侧的倒转河道带生成的(a)CTX图像和(b)HiRISE的DTM图像(5倍垂直放大)(修改自Liu Z et al., 2021

    Figure  4.  (a) CTX and DTM of (b) HiRISE (5x vertical exaggeration), which two images are generated from the inverted channel belts on the eastern Tempe Terra (modified from Liu Z et al., 2021)

    图  5  位于伊希斯平原的冰川地貌,图像为HiRISE的ESP_019358_2225_RED

    Figure  5.  The Glacier in the Isidis Planitia, image from HiRISE ESP_019358_2225_RED

    图  6  López撞击坑内的沙丘,图像为HiRISE的ESP_026609_1655_RED

    Figure  6.  The sand dune in the López impact crater, image from HiRISE ESP_026609_1655_RED at HiRISE

    图  7  火星表面主要含水矿物全球分布(修改自Ehlmann and Edwards, 2014

    Figure  7.  Global distribution of the major classes of aqueous minerals on Mars (modified from Ehlmann and Edwards, 2014)

    图  8  第30火星年,位于牛顿盆地中Palikir撞击坑中的RSL(黑色箭头指向区域)随时间演化假彩色图(McEwen et al., 2011). (a)取自HiRISE数据ESP_021911_1380,拍摄于第30个火星年春季(Ls=265°);(b)取自HiRISE数据ESP_022689_1380,拍摄于第30个火星的夏季(Ls=302°). 在春夏季之间,RSL开始大量出现

    Figure  8.  Enhanced color views demonstrating RSL development (black arrows) over time at Palikir crater (inside Newton Basin)in MY30 (McEwen et al., 2011). (a) is the full HiRISE ESP_021911_1380 acquired in the spring (Ls=265°) of MY 30. (b) is the full HiRISE ESP_022689_1380 acquired in the summer (Ls=302°)of MY 30.RSL appear in large numbers between spring (a) and summer (b).

    图  9  Mars Color Imager(MARCI)拍摄的2018年火星全球沙尘暴前(a)5月28日后(b)7月1日的彩色影像

    Figure  9.  Mars before and after global dust storm. Images captured by Mars Color Imager (MARCI). (a) May 28th; (b) July 1st

    图  10  火星地质历史主要事件时间线(修改自Ehlmann et al., 2011

    Figure  10.  Timeline of major processes in Mars history (modified from Ehlmann et al., 2011)

    图  11  诺亚纪和早期西方纪时期火星上主要气候过程示意图. 这幅漫画假设了早期气候的一种偶发温暖的情景,雪被偶发的融化事件打断,长期运输到南部高地

    Figure  11.  Schematic of the major climate processes on Mars in the Noachian and early Hesperian periods. This cartoon assumes an episodically warm scenario for the early climate with long-term transport of snow to the southern highlands interrupted by episodic melting events

    图  12  五种可能具有宜居性的火星古环境(修改自Hoehler, 2007

    Figure  12.  Five possible habitable ancient martian environments (modified from Hoehler, 2007)

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-10
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-19
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-01